An updated guide on Buffs and Debuffs Foreword: Fellow mod Cloudedstrife previously made a guide on this subject already (https://fireemblemheroesforum.com/threads/guide-buff-effect-stacking.314/), but it is pretty outdated, and it did not mention debuffs or negative buffs. Thus I've decided to make a new one. I will be using general terms that should withstand the passage of time, even if the meta transforms drastically in the future. Cloud used the terms "buffs" and "effects" to refer to hones and spurs respectively. I am personally not a fan of the word "effect", because everybody refers to spurs as "buffs" either way. I will be differentiating the two types of buffs as: Field Buffs - Hones, Fortifies, Rallies, etc. Combat Buffs - Spurs, Goads, Wards, etc. The contents I will be covering: Fields Buffs Combat Buffs Buffs Stacking Field Debuffs Combat Debuffs Buffs/Debuffs Stacking Bladetomes interaction Negative Buffs Without further ado, let's start. 1) Field Buffs A Field Buff gives your unit an easily identifiable blue colour on their stat. If your Ryoma's Atk is Field Buffed, his Atk stat is blue instead of the usual yellow. Ninian has a Field Buff of +6 on her Res stat. Field buffs last one turn. It begins at the start of Player Phase, which is the moment when you are able to move your units around and perform actions. And it lasts until the end of the Enemy Phase, the part where your enemies move and attack you. If you Field Buff a unit's Def stat, it will be active even when your enemy initiates on you on the Enemy Phase. 2) Combat Buffs A Combat Buff does NOT give your stats a Blue colour, and it only applies in a combat. Spurs are the most common examples of Combat Buffs, but skills such as Death Blow are also Combat Buffs. Difference simply is that Death Blow applies to the unit itself, Spurs apply to your allies. Ninian will provide a Combat Buff of +4 Atk for allies adjacent to her. Alfonse provides himself with a Combat Buff of +4 Atk when he initiates combat. As you can tell by the name, Combat Buffs last for a combat, and only INSIDE the combat. It will apply for every combat as long as your unit is within range to be Combat Buffed. 3) Buffs Stacking Field Buffs do not stack with other Field Buffs, but they stack with Combat Buffs. Combat Buffs stack with Field Buffs as well as other Combat Buffs. Alfonse from my previous example will gain +8 Atk if he's standing next to Ninian. If you try to give 2 Field Buffs at once, the higher number will win and the lower number ignored. Example: If you have a unit receiving Hone Atk AND Hone Cavalry Buffs, only the +6 Atk will apply. 4) Field Debuffs As opposed to Field Buffs, a Field Debuff gives your stat a red colour instead. Ninian has -3 Def and Res Field Debuffed. Field Debuffs last only 1 action. What this means is, if Ninian ends her turn, her Field Debuffs immediately end and her stats go back to normal. If your unit is Field Debuffed and you have a Dancer on your team, you can end their turn to get rid of the Field Debuff, then Dance them to get them moving again. 5) Combat Debuffs Currently the only unit capable of inflicting Combat Debuffs is the GHB unit Julius with his tome Loptous. Just like Combat Buffs, Combat Debuffs only lasts for a combat, and only inside the combat. 6) Buffs/Debuffs stacking Field Debuffs do not stack with each other. However, Field Debuffs and Buffs stack. Ninian is Field Buffed +6 Res and Field Debuffed -3 Res. The net total is +3 Res. Field Debuffs stack with Combat Buffs too, be careful! Bladetome interaction: You may be curious about how do Field Debuffs interact with Bladetomes. The answer is: they do not interact at all! If your Gronnblade Nino has +6 Res Field Buff and -3 Res Field Debuff, the total bonus added onto the Bladetome will be 6, not 3. In other words, Bladetomes don't care about the Debuffs on your unit. 7) Negative Buffs Negatives only apply to Field Buffs. A Negative Buff happens when a unit receives a Field Buff, but is then affected by Panic, thus turning the Buff into a Negative. While Negative Buffs are technically Field Debuffs, they are stored differently than regular Field Debuffs, therefore Negative Buffs STACK with Field Debuffs. Ninian received +4 Atk Field Buff, but she is hit by Panic Ploy, so the +4 Buff is turned to a Debuff. At the same time, she is also Field Debuffed by -6 Atk. The net total is -10 Atk. Negative Buffs can also be gotten rid of by ending your unit's turn. You may be wondering if the same applies to Harsh Command, turning Debuffs into Buffs. Unfortunately, Negative Debuffs do not exist. They are simply stored as regular Field Buffs. That's it for now! If you have any further questions, feel free to ask below.